Disability Categories

Crookston Public Schools offers programs and services for students who have met special education eligibility in any of the 13 disability areas identified in Minnesota Rules Chapter 3525.

Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) means a range of pervasive developmental disorders, with onset in childhood (generally evident before age 3), that adversely affect a student's functioning and result in the need for special education instruction and related services. ASD is a disability category characterized by an uneven developmental profile and a pattern of qualitative impairments in several areas of development including social interaction, communication, or presence of restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. These core features may present themselves in a wide variety of combinations that range from mild to severe, and the number of behavioral indicators present may vary.

Blind-Visually Impaired
Visually impaired means a medically verified visual impairment accompanied by limitations in sight that interfere with acquiring information or interaction with the environment to the extent that special education instruction and related services may be needed. Visual disorders fall into 3 basic categories: visual malfunctions which can be corrected with lenses; visual impairments which adversely affect sight even with corrective lenses; and severe vision impairments which affect sight to such an extent that alternative methods must be used to read and travel.

Deaf/blindness means medically verified visual impairment coupled with medically verified hearing impairment that, together, interfere with acquiring information or interacting with the environment.

Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Hearing impairment is the term used to describe the wide range of hearing loss in persons, whether temporary or permanent, slight or profound. It is important to remember that while profound deafness is the most dramatic form of hearing impairment, the vast majority of people with hearing impairments have some usable hearing.

Developmental Cognitive Disabilities
Developmental cognitive disability refers to significant deficits in general intellectual functioning resulting in or associated with concurrent deficits in adaptive behavior that may require special education instruction and related services.

Developmental Delay
Early childhood special education is available for children age birth through age 6. Children receive services if there is a substantial delay or disorder in development or have an identifiable sensory, physical, mental, or social emotional condition or impairment known to hinder normal development.

Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Emotional or behavioral disorder means an established pattern characterized by one or more of the following behavior clusters: an inability to learn which cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory or health factors; an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers; inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances; a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears in association with personal or school problems.

Other Health Disabilities
Other health impaired means a broad range of medically diagnosed chronic or acute health conditions that may adversely affect academic functioning and extra-curricular participation, resulting in the need for special education instruction and related services.

Physically Impaired
Physically impaired means a medically diagnosed, chronic, physical impairment. The term includes impairments caused by congenital anomaly (birth defect), impairments caused by disease, and impairments from other causes.
Severely multiply impaired refers to children with more than one serious disability (e.g. hearing impaired, physically impaired, moderate – severe mentally impaired, visually impaired, emotional or behavior disorders, autism), the combination of which causes such severe educational problems that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments.

Specific Learning Disabilities
Specific learning disabilities are a chronic condition of presumed neurological origin, which selectively interferes with the development, integration, and/or demonstration of verbal and/or non-verbal abilities. Specific learning disabilities exist as a distinct disabling condition in the presence of average to superior intelligence, adequate sensory and motor systems, and adequate learning opportunities. The condition varies in its manifestations and in degree of severity. Most children with learning disabilities are average to above average in intelligence but there is severe discrepancy in achievement and intellectual ability in one or more of the academic areas. Children with learning disabilities may have problems learning to read, write, spell, compute or listen. They may also have difficulty expressing their thoughts verbally or in writing.

Speech or Language Impairments
Speech impairments are defined as a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment, or a voice impairment, which adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Communication disorders can be characterized by problems in any one or a combination of the following: articulation or phonological problems are problems related to the sounds in a language. Errors might be omissions, substitutions, or distortions of sounds; voice disorders are usually identified as significant deviations in pitch, loudness, or tonal quality; language disorders include a wide range of problems relating to a child’s understanding of what others say (receptive disorders) or to his or her ability to express ideas in words and sentences (expressive disorders); stuttering is a disorder which may cause a child to repeat initial sounds or whole words, to prolong certain sounds, or have a complete block with no speech at all.

Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic Brain Injury means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that may adversely affect a child’s educational performance.

Developmental Adapted Physical Education (DAPE)
Although DAPE is not a stand-alone service, and therefore not a disability category, it is a related service that may be provided to those who qualify.
Developmental adapted physical education means specially designed physical education instruction and services for pupils with disabilities who have a substantial delay or disorder in physical development.

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